The Whole Internet Is Managed By 14 People; Each One Is A Security Keyholder

Keys to the internet
Image: The Guardian

There are 14 people who handle the Internet. These people are the members of ICANN. This organization checks Internet security, as well as links domains to IP addresses. There are seven people who hold the key, and the other seven are backup keyholders. The security of the organization is very tight considering its responsibility as an Internet security system.

Half of us only know about or rather are concerned only with accessing the Internet. But not even half of us know who controls the Internet? Or who holds the key to the whole of this web world? Isn’t it intriguing-like who are those people who have their power on the Internet.

A team of 14 people has control on the Internet. Each of the individual holds a key, which when combined together forms the main master key of the whole of the Internet networks worldwide. Seven of these fourteen people are the main keyholders, while other seven are the backup keyholders.

The information was gathered by The Guardian. And all the details were based on the highly secure Key Ceremony attended by its special project editor James Ball.

The team joins in a meeting held four times a year. As reported, all the keyholders of the unit are highly experienced and personalized in Internet security. Further, no country has too many keyholders or rather it’s not really allowed.

‘Each of the 14 primary keyholders owns a traditional metal key to a safety deposit box, which in turn contains a smartcard, which in turn activates a machine that creates a new master key.’ Photo Credits: Laurence Mathieu for the Guardian

The body handles the Domain Name System that links web address to IP address. For every web page, there is a numerical internet address. The objective of the master key concept is to secure the whole Domain Name System.

There are multiple security levels. Each keyholder keeps their metal keys in the most security-tightened place. All these safety and security is taken care by an organization named Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) which holds the system.

For that matter, if we talk about the security system of the office, it’s not easy to get inside their working arena, quite obvious. It actually requires passwords to pin entry to the smart card to biometric hand scan to enter any room. That too only one door at a time can be opened. It is like a mantrap, says James from The Guardian.

But did you notice their strategy, plan or security? Well, ICANN’s plan is a backup for situations of cyber attacks. The reason the keys are divided among 14 is only to ensure no power goes to a single hand, which is otherwise risky.

13 Best Websites For Legal Torrents And Safe Downloading | 2017 Edition

BitTorrent is a very useful technology that is used to share legal as well as copyright-protected content illegally. So, if you are looking for some websites for legal torrents, you’re in good luck. Websites like Public Domain Torrents, Legit Torrents, Linux Tracker, etc. are known to provide good quality torrents. You can go ahead and check out these websites and torrent safely and legally.

If you choose to download free movies and games from torrent websites without infringing someone’s copyright, you are using the BitTorrent protocol in the best possible manner. But, on most of the popular torrent websites, there’s no particular way to differentiate between legally and illegally shared content.

To solve this problem, we’ve prepared a useful list of torrent websites that only host 100% free and legal torrents for downloading. You can use these services to torrent safely and legally to stay out of the trouble. Let’s take a look:

13 Websites for Legal Torrent Downloading

1. Public Domain Torrents

Public Domain Torrents
Image: Public Domain Torrents

Public Domain Torrents. At that time, I was surprised to find a website which was completely legal. Just like me, you’ll be surprised to find that it hosts many legal torrents. It hosts lots of Classic Movies and B-Movies which you can download for free. You can choose the category to narrow down your search or click on the top-seeded and newest added options. Many of the classic movies hosted here are difficult to find anywhere else. It goes without saying that all the content you’ll find here is freely available in public domain.

Why visit Public Domain Torrents — For classic movies torrents

2. Internet Archive

Just like Public Domain Torrents, the legit torrents at Internet Archive are another hidden gem. While the website isn’t easy to navigate, it does feature a large collection of films, texts, audio, etc. The movies on this free and legal torrents website are sorted in different categories like sci-fi, horror, comedy, film noir, etc. Apart from movies, there is also a section for television as well. The overall collection has about hundreds of movies that you can enjoy safely and legally.

Why visit Internet Archive — Huge library of film torrents, music, and books

3. Legit Torrents

As the name suggests, Legit Torrents can be used for 100% legal torrent downloading. As per the current count, the website hosts more than 3700 legal torrents that you can use for downloading purposes. The website is pretty neatly designed and the search option works well. The website’s home page displays recently uploaded torrents. While searching for a torrent, you can choose the category–shows, Linux distro, movies, music, games, anime, books, apps, etc. The Extra Stats section also features the top 10 most active torrents.

Why visit Legit Torrents — Good source of legal movies and software.

4. Vuze StudioHD Network

Image: Vuze StudioHD Network
Image: Vuze StudioHD Network

Apart from the torrent clients uTorrent, BitTorrent, and Transmission, Vuze is a great option. Moreover, it also turns as a great source of legal torrents for safe downloading. It hosts video content which is divided into many categories like comedy, TV and movies, music videos, news, TED Talks, etc. You can visit the online website or access the torrent directory from the Vuze client itself. The overall interface is pretty simple and straightforward.

Why visit Vuze Network — NASA, TED Talks, Tekzilla, and music videos.

5. Bitlove

Bitlove is another great way to find legal torrents. The website has a large directory which has more than 1850 audio torrents and more than 222 videos. The directory is pretty neatly organized in the alphabetical orders. One of the best features of Bitlove is that you can sort the content on the basis of languages. This is an important feature as the website is a great source of audio and video podcasts. You can also use this legal torrenting website to share your own podcast feed. The website also ensures data integrity using SHA1 hashes.

Why visit Bitlove — Awesome source of podcast torrents

6. Linux Tracker

Image: Linux Tracker
Image: Linux Tracker

If you love distro hopping, Linux Tracker is the go-to website for you. Solely dedicated to Linux distros and their legal torrenting, this website has been tracking Linux torrents from the past 12 years. The website homepage has different Linux torrents sorted according to date, seeders, leechers, etc. In a glance, you can see the upload date, and size of the image. If you’re having some spare bandwidth, you can also use Linux Tracker to help a fellow open source enthusiast by looking at the list of ‘seed wanted torrents.’ As I’m talking about Linux distro torrents, you can also keep checking Distrowatch for latest updates and their torrents.

Why visit Linux Tracker  Linux distro torrents

7. Jamendo

Jamendo calls itself the world’s largest digital service for free music and there a reason behind this claim. You can use this website to download music torrents safely and legally. It’s an online music community where independent artists share their work. It’s also great for the networking listeners and artists. The content uploaded on this website is under Creative Commons license. Talking about the website, after signing in, you’ll see a list of tracks sorted by popularity and trending nature. You can also search for relevant tracks, communities, and playlists. Another great feature of Jamendo is its Radio feature that allows you to listen to free and legal music from various genres.

Why visit Jamendo — For free music download and listening

8. Vodo

Vodo is a great option for indie lovers who wish to visit a legal torrent website, watch free movies, and download their torrents if they wish. It has 200+ independent movies that are being provided by the content creators. The site also allows you to support your favorite artists with the help of donations. Please note that donation is completely optional and you don’t need to make any payment to watch the free content. The interface of the website is very simple, and the featured content is listed on the website homepage. At the top, there’s a Free Movies option which lists all the available movies. You can search the movies and use the sorting options to find the required content easily.

Why visit Vodo — For independent and free movies torrents

9. Miro Guide

Before telling you about Miro’s torrent offering, let me tell you that it’s primarily an Internet TV player that comes with a built-in BitTorrent client for searching content and playing them. It’s an open source and independent platform. Its directory of legit content makes the task of legal torrent downloading safe and easy. The website’s interface is pretty simple; it gives you the option to choose video and audio torrents using the menu options at the top. By using the options in the right panel, you can select the torrents in different categories like Editor’s Picks, New, Top Rated. You can also sort the podcasts by language.

Why visit Miro Guide — TV shows and video podcast torrents

10. Game Updates

Image: Gameupdates
Image: Gameupdates

If you love gaming and you don’t wish to spend tons of money buying gaming titles for your PC or console, Game Updates can help you out. It’s a community for legal torrents for gaming that doesn’t ask you to signup for downloading content. However, if you wish to contribute your own free and legal games, you can register your account. Game Updates also claims to have seeders to keep the torrents up as long as they are needed. Talking about the home page of this legit torrenting website, at the top you’ll see a search box. Below that, you’ll find a list of popular torrents. You can sort the available torrents on the basis of size, downloads, date, etc.

Why visit Game Updates — If you love gaming and want free & legal downloads

11. Etree

Etree is a useful website for downloading live concert videos. It has a good collection of legal music torrents, which includes a fine mix of new and old. The user community of Etree shares the live concert recordings of the music artists that allow such free sharing. The website lists the music content in a simple manner; the list shows the name of the artist, show, the number of files, size, date, etc. The search option works fine and allows you to focus your search on a particular torrent.

Why visit Etree — For free and legal concert recordings

12. Academic Torrents

Academic Torrent is designed to store all the data used in research, including publications and datasets. With the help of BitTorrent technology, a group can seed their own peer-reviewed published articles using a torrent client like uTorrent or Vuze. The website of Academic Torrents is very simple and easy to use. The homepage asks you to view popular torrents or upload your own dataset. While searching the content on the website, you can narrow down the result in different categories like Papers, Datasets, Courses, and Collections.

Why visit Academic Torrents — A legal torrent source of academic papers and courses

13. TAS Videos

Unlike other torrent websites on this list that provide movies and games, TAS Videos is primarily created to serve the needs of gamers who wish to improve their gameplay. The website provides run through of classic and modern games, which allows a new user to become experts. The website homepage shows the latest publications. Using the search box given at the top right corner, you can download the torrents easily.

Why visit TAS Videos — For run through videos of games

Other free and legal torrent websites

Apart from the above-mentioned torrent websites for free and legal content, some other sites that need mention are Clear Bits, COTapers, SXSW Torrents, BitTorrent Now, etc.

BitTorrent Downloading FAQs

Is BitTorrent legal?

It’s an absurd question. Just like owning a knife and using it to cut fruits and vegetables doesn’t make you a criminal, using BitTorrent for downloading legal content is perfectly fine. It’s a useful and legitimate technology that is widely used by indie artists to promote their music and movies. Linux distro developers too freely share their releases using this technology.

How to does BitTorrent work?

BitTorrent is a peer-to-peer protocol that allows you to download and share data across the internet. They are simply files that have the information related to other files and folders. You can read more about the working of BitTorrent in detail here.

How to download torrents safely?

To download a content from a torrent website, you need a good torrent client like uTorrent, BitTorrent, Transmission, Vuze, etc. But, that’s not all. To ensure that your torrent downloading is safe and hidden, use of a VPN service to hide your IP address is recommended. You can also read this article to know how VPN is much better and secure as compared to a proxy.

Why do people download pirated content illegally?

With the rise of streaming services, one can assume that the use of torrent websites is declining. Many popular torrent websites have already become a victim of law enforcement agencies. But, people still end up pirating movies and games because they don’t want to pay for it. They don’t consider the risks involved big enough. Other people do the same due to the unavailability of some content in a region or lack of knowledge..

Do all torrent websites provide illegal content?

No. While the popular torrent websites like the Pirate Bay offer a mix of legal and illegal torrents, there are some services that offer 100% free content without any copyright issue. In the list given above, I told you about such websites and their strengths.

How To Download Windows 10, 8.1, And 7 ISO Files Legally 😍😍😍


Very often a Windows user needs an ISO file to perform a clean installation from the scratch. Instead for asking your friends or paying a visit to notorious torrent websites, you can download Windows 10, 8.1, and 7 legally from various sources. Later, you can use it to make a bootable USB (or burn a DVD) and activate Windows using your legal key.

If you’ve recently bought a Windows computer, you might be owning an original Windows installation disk and a Windows key. While performing a clean installation, you can use them to get things done and activate the newly installed operating system.

Very often we misplace our original Windows installation disk. So, what would you do if you need to reinstall Windows operating system from the scratch using the key that came with your PC?

Usually, people borrow the ISO files from a friend and make a bootable disk or USB. Others visit different file-sharing and torrent websites and download Windows ISO files. Apart from being illegal, this method also brings along a high chance of malware infection.

So, how to download Windows 10, 8.1, and 7 ISOs legally ?

After releasing a new version of Windows, Microsoft makes the latest ISO files available on its website. Few people know about this legal method to grab a copy of Windows operating system.

You can easily download Windows 10, 8.1, and 7 legally using the official channels of Microsoft. Later, you can activate the copy using the key that came with your computer.

In case you face any problem activating the downloaded Windows on your computer–this might happen due to the differences between a retail and OEM version of Windows, you need to contact Microsoft support and it’ll solve this problem.

Where to get Windows 10 and 8.1 ISOs legally?

When Microsoft released the ISO files of Windows 10 for a clean installation, I wrote an article about it and told you how to use Microsoft’s Media Creation tool.  This process of downloading a fresh copy of Windows 10 and 8.1–and creating an installation media–involves the same steps.

To get started with this procedure, you need to go ahead and download Windows 10 Media Creation Tool or Windows 8.1 Media Creation tool.

After you’ve downloaded this small program, just click and give it the permissions, if asked, to make changes to your computer. Now, accept the license terms–Windows 8.1 version of the tool doesn’t ask for permissions–and proceed.

On the dialog window that asks “What do you want to do?”, select the “Create installation media for another PC” and proceed. Note that Windows 8.1 version of Media Creation Tool doesn’t give you this option and directly creates the installation media for another PC.

Now after filling the basic information like language, edition, architecture etc., click on the Next.

Depending upon on the fact that you want to create a bootable USB drive or download an ISO file that you’ll burn to a DVD, select the options on “Choose which media to use” dialog window.

In the next step, choose the location where you want to save the Windows 10 or Windows 8.1 ISO file. Depending upon your internet connection speed, Microsoft’s Media Creation tool will download Windows 10 or Windows 8.1 legally on your computer.

Where to get Windows 7 SPI ISO file legally ?

After telling you about how to download Windows 10 and Windows 8.1 legally, I’ll be sharing the method to do the same for Windows 7 ISO files.

Here, you don’t need to download some tool to get Windows 7 ISO files. Instead, Microsoft lets you officially download Windows 7 directly from its 7 download

You just need to enter a valid Windows 7 key and Microsoft will let you download Windows 7 SPI ISO file legally. As you type your key and verify it, Microsoft will show you the 64-bit and 32-bit download options.

After downloading the ISO file, you can burn the file to a DVD or create a bootable Windows 7 USB drive.

Download any Windows ISO using third party tools :

Apart from Microsoft’s website, there are 3rd party websites that provide free tools to let you download Windows operating system and Office ISOs

You need to visit and download Microsoft Windows and Office ISO Download Tool. This free tool’s simple interface will let you choose the Windows version and download the ISO of your choice.

Free Windows 10 and 8.1 trials on TechNet :

If you don’t have a legal key and you want to try out Windows operating system, Microsoft’s TechNet Evaluation Center is the right place to pay a technet evaluation center

Above mentioned, you can use it to try a variety of other Microsoft software. Visit Microsoft TechNet Evaluation Center here.

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What’s WWW And The Internet? What’s The Difference Between The Internet And World Wide Web?

Difference Internet and web

All things you do, whether it is streaming movies, browsing Facebook, some other thing, you are doing it on the web, not on the internet. The Internet is a network of computer devices, routers, and server across the globe. While the web or World Wide Web is like software running on the internet, it doesn’t have any physical existence. The web used to access all the websites and services with the help of various protocols.

We usually assume that the internet and world wide web (commonly known as the web or WWW) are the same things. But they aren’t, although, they’re required to exist together to get things done. Most of the time, we don’t give a second thought before using one word in place of the other.

So, what is the internet?

What is internet

The Internet is the physical network of network of networks, and so on. The devices connected to your home router can be called as the part of local area network (LAN). Similarly, if a network expands across your city, it would be known as the Metropolitan Area Network (MAN). The Wide Area Network (WAN) can have its reach across the whole nation, or even overseas. (I will be writing a detailed article on LAN, MAN, and WAN in future)

In a nutshell, an uncountable number of small, medium, and large-sized networks contribute towards a massive network known as the Internet. It consists of various end-user devices, routers, switches, data servers, etc. Special underwater cables are laid across countries and continents to make the internet a global thing.

And, what is the World Wide Web?

Difference Internet WWW
                                    Image: Computer History Museum

Now, all the computers connected together as the internet aren’t going to transfer information on their own.

Let us take an example of a talking club. Consider the people sitting in the club as the devices connected to the internet. Now, they can communicate over many mediums. For instance, they can talk to each other or write their thoughts on a piece of paper and pass it on. You can relate the world wide web as one of the ways to exchange information on the internet. Usually, we define WWW as the information space where web pages (and other things) are identified using their URLs (Unique Resource Locators), interlinked using hypertext links and can be accessed over the internet.

You can relate the world wide web as one of the ways to exchange information on the internet. Usually, we define WWW as the information space where web pages (and other things) are identified using their URLs (Unique Resource Locator), interlinked using hypertext links, and can be accessed over the internet.

Assume you’re sitting in such a club (internet) with other people (devices connected to the internet). You can ask one of them about their thoughts (web pages) by speaking (the web). Their identification details (URL) can be their name or face, in case you’re new to the club. And the hypertext link is ‘you’ trying to make efforts to access more of his thoughts.

In reality, the hypertext links are the clickable links you find on websites. So, if a person tells something to you and you want to know more, then, you can ask related questions. You can find many links on this page also, click on them to know more.

Now, there might be rules in the club regarding how you should talk. For example, it might be compulsory to speak in a low voice, or you need to close your eyes while talking. We have the protocols to maintain a smooth flow of data from a web server to your web browser. And we call it the HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol), or a newer one, HTTP/2.

HTTPS is a variant of HTTP that secures the connection by enabling encryption. However, HTTP is only one component that enables the communication. There are other helping hands like TCP/IP and UDP protocol. But that’s in a different depth of the story.

Normally, we don’t visit the websites directly. We take the help of search engines which crawl everywhere and index the sites. There is a part of the web beyond the reach of the search engines. It is called Deep Web.

Who owns the web?

No one owns the web. It was created by the computer scientist Tim-Berners Lee in 1989 while working at CERN. He also led the foundation of the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) which looks after the development of the web. Lee is the current director of the consortium.

What about other mediums of conversation?

Talking is one way of exchanging information. But there are other means as well. For instance, you prefer to write the stuff on a piece of paper. You can assume this thing as the email. Yeah, email is a different thing than the WWW. And I hope you don’t try to mix the two things.

The use of email or electronic message is to exchange messages between two devices over the internet. Earlier, it was all text in the emails, but nowadays, the emails have started to include rich multimedia content. There are separate protocols to make sure the delivery of emails across devices remains uninterrupted. For instance, there might be a rule to put the piece of paper in a box next to the addressee.

Some of the popular email protocols are SMTP, POP3, IMAP, they have their own set of pros and cons. Similarly, there can be other modes of conversation. If you can also transfer files on the internet directly using the FTP (File Transfer Protocol).

Network Layer Of OSI Model: Functionalities and Protocols

network layer osi model

Network layer comes next in the queue after discussing two sublayers of MAC layer, namely MAC layer and LLC layer. The network layer is an important layer in the OSI model because some of the important concepts it applies, including IP addressing, connection model, message forwarding etc.

As we talked earlier in the article OSI Model and its 7 layers, the network layer  becomes one of the most important layers of the OSI model because it applies some concepts which define the base of the internet and IP addressing. Continue reading

Google Announces Android O, Developer Preview 1 Available for Supported Devices

Google Announces Android O, Developer Preview 1 Available for Supported Devices

Bred of running Android Nougat on your smartphone? Yearning to see what the future holds for the next iteration of the world’s most popular mobile operating system? Google has you covered for today, as the company has just announced what comes after Android Nougat.Meet  Android O.

As is custom with Google, Android O is what the next OS version will be called until it finally comes to consumers sometime in Q3 2017. We can speculate on what the full name will be, and we’ve got a few months to do so as well.

But what we have right now is a full developer preview and a plethora of changes that O will be bringing to Android. Google has listed the new features and APIs in Android O, so we’ll briefly touch upon several of these below. Continue reading

The Difference Between A Programmer, Coder, Developer And Engineer

The titles such as Engineer, Programmer, Coder, Developer, and Computer Scientist are very confusing even for those who are working in the technology industry. Do you exactly know what do they do and in case of a problem or help whom should you approach?

In reality, it depends upon organization to organization and how these terms are used by them in their industry, as these terms are often interchangeable. It can change and mean different things based on the situation.

So, how do you differentiate between these terms and know who’s who and what kind of expert you will require for a particular job? While there is no specific rule to follow, we will have a look at each title below and see what it means. Continue reading

YouTube’s Go app for data-conscious viewers is now available on Android

YouTube’s Go app for data-conscious viewers is now available on Android

Last September, Google announced it was launching YouTube Go, an Android app designed to help users save data while watching and sharing videos. It’s now available for you to try out.

The app lets you choose whether you’d like to stream your selected videos immediately or download them for offline viewing in standard and low quality modes. You can also send videos to other YouTube Go users near you over a local ad-hoc Wi-Fi hotspot that won’t use up either person’s data. Continue reading