Malware is malicious line of codes, a software or a program. Malware is short for malicious software. It can be used to bypass control, steal data, compromise systems. Malware can be anything that looks legitimate to the users but contain infected code to harm your computer, smartphone or anything that runs on 0 and 1. It can results in damage of any computer system or it can interrupt the processes on-going and can corrupt the files.
Types of Malwares
Malwares are malicious software, by so far research we have described the following common types of malwares:
Spyware is a type of malware that obtains covert information about another computer activities by transmitting data covertly from their hard drives. It functions without the consent of victim and works beyond his knowledge.
These spying capabilities can include activity monitoring, collecting keystrokes, data harvesting (account information, logins, financial data), and more. Spyware has often additional capabilities as well, ranging from modifying security settings of software or browsers to interfering with network connections. Spyware spreads by exploiting software vulnerabilities, bundling itself with legitimate software, or in Trojans.
Bug is the software flaw, an error or failure in a computer program that causes unexpected result. Bugs generally the flaws that left behind as the result of human error and typically exist in the source code or compilers of a program. The bugs that are not patched or discovered in a time period goes for long and affects the working of computer. The bugs can also crash any software or program running on any computer. More significant bugs can cause crashing or freezing. Security bugs are the most severe type of bugs and can allow attackers to bypass user authentication, override access privileges, or steal data. Bugs can be prevented with developer education, quality control, and code analysis tools.
Adware (short for advertising-supported software) is a type of malware that downloads and displays advertisements automatically. This malware is used to collect the user’s information without the user’s knowledge or consent. The common examples of adware include pop-up ads on websites and advertisements that are displayed by software. Often times software and applications offer “free” versions that come bundled with adware. Most adware is sponsored or authored by advertisers and serves as a revenue generating tool. While some adware is solely designed to deliver advertisements, it is not uncommon for adware to come bundled with spyware that is capable of tracking user activity and stealing information.
Ransomware is a form of malware that essentially holds a computer system captive while demanding a ransom. The malware restricts user access to the computer either by encrypting files on the hard drive or locking down the system and displaying messages that are intended to force the user to pay the malware creator to remove the restrictions and regain access to their computer. Ransomware typically spreads like a normal computer worm (see below) ending up on a computer via a downloaded file or through some other vulnerability in a network service.
Bots are the malicious programs that are designed for some specific task or operation. An Internet bot is also known as web robot, WWW robot or simply bot. The bots are the software application that runs automated tasks. The tasks are either structurally simple or repetitive. Bots can be used in botnets that is the collections of computers to be controlled by third parties for DDoS attacks, as spambots that render advertisements on websites, as web spiders that scrape server data, and for distributing malware disguised as popular search items on download sites.
The mitigation can be used in such a way that websites can guard against bots withCAPTCHA tests that verify users as human.
A rootkit is a collection of tools (programs) that enable administrator-level access to a computer or computer network. Typically, a cracker installs a rootkit on a computer after first obtaining user-level access, either by exploiting a known vulnerability or cracking a password. Once a rootkit has been installed it is possible for the malicious party behind the rootkit to remotely execute files, access/steal information, modify system configurations, alter software (especially any security software that could detect the rootkit), install concealed malware, or control the computer as part of a botnet. Rootkit prevention, detection, and removal can be difficult due to their stealthy operation. Because a rootkit continually hides its presence, typical security products are not effective in detecting and removing rootkits. As a result, rootkit detection relies on manual methods such as monitoring computer behavior for irregular activity, signature scanning, and storage dump analysis. Organizations and users can protect themselves from rootkits by regularly patching vulnerabilities in software, applications, and operating systems, updating virus definitions, avoiding suspicious downloads, and performing static analysis scans.
Virus is a type of malware which is capable of self-replicating when it gets executed. The execution can be done by human too. Virus are able to infect computer programs or files and can inject through hard drives very easily. The malicious code then executes the malicious behavior which interrupts the working processes of a computer system. The most common type of virus is of email-attachment. The virus comes with an email, in which the infected file is virus. When the user clicks on the file to download or open the malicious file downloads and get executed. The virus then hides in the computer memory and works as according to the code for which it is written.
A computer worm is a type of malware in which a computer program replicates itself in order to spread to other computers. Often, it uses a computer network to spread itself, relying on security failures on the target computer to access it. Unlike a computer virus, it does not need to attach itself to an existing program. They spread over computer networks by exploiting operating system vulnerabilities. Worms typically cause harm to their host networks by consuming bandwidth and overloading web servers. Computer worms can also contain “payloads” that damage host computers. Payloads are pieces of code written to perform actions on affected computers beyond simply spreading the worm. Payloads are commonly designed to steal data, delete files, or create botnets. Computer worms can be classified as a type of computer virus, but there are several characteristics that distinguish computer worms from regular viruses. A major difference is that computer worms have the ability to self-replicate and spread independently while viruses rely on human activity to spread (running a program, opening a file, etc). Worms often spread by sending mass emails with infected attachments to users’ contacts.